Cholangioscopy/Pancreatoscopy — also called intraductal endoscopy — allows direct visualization of the biliary and pancreatic ducts. Virginia Mason gastroenterologists use novel applications — combining cholangioscopy with endoscopic ultrasound, for example — that allow better visualization of this interconnected "biliary tree." During a cholangioscopy procedure, a small endoscope, called a cholangioscope, is passed through a traditional endoscope (an ERCP, which is a thin, flexible tube) down the esophagus into the biliary tract.
The cholangioscope allows your gastroenterologist to diagnose, take tissue samples and in many cases treat bile duct strictures (scars), gallstones, bile duct stones, and sclerosing cholangitis (narrowing and blockage of the liver ducts from infection or inflammation). The cholangioscope also is a vital diagnostic tool for confirming or ruling out cancer of the biliary tract.
Cholangioscopy Frequently Asked Questions
- What preparations are required?
- Can I take my current medications?
- What happens during an ERCP?
- What happens after an ERCP?
- What if the ERCP shows something?
- Will I talk with the physician after the procedure?
- What are the possible complications of ERCP?
- What if I have other questions or concerns?
1. What preparations are required?
You will be given written instructions for the endoscopy (ERCP prep planner) that will include diet and other information. Please review this prep planner in advance, follow the instructions closely and call if you have any questions. You must not eat or drink anything for the six hours prior to this exam.
You must arrange someone to drive you home after your procedure otherwise the procedure will be canceled. For more information, view the ERCP preparation planner.
2. Can I take my current medications?
Please contact your regular doctor if you are on a blood thinner such as Coumadin, Warfarin or Plavix. Contact your doctor if you are a diabetic and need to give yourself insulin; do not take any diabetic pills on the day of your procedure. You may take all your other regular medications with a small amount of water. Please bring a detailed list of your regular medications with you on the day of your exam.
3. What happens during an ERCP?
You will have a chance to meet with the doctor in the procedure room. He/she will discuss your concerns and explain the risks and benefits of the procedure. The doctor will then start putting some sedation medication in your IV. This medication is given to relax you and allow you to rest during the exam. Most people get sleepy, drowsy, relaxed and forgetful, but you will not become unconscious. You may have a brief sensation of pressure in the back of your throat. If you are uncomfortable during the procedure, you can be given more medication if it is safe to do so. The nurse will constantly monitor you and give you medication as you need it. The procedure takes about 60 to 90 minutes.
4. What happens after an ERCP?
You will spend at least 30 minutes in our recovery room and be allowed to rest. The nurses will monitor you while you are in recovery. You will be transferred to the hospital if you must stay overnight. If you will be discharged and allowed to go home, you will be able to get dressed and leave after you are awake. Even though you feel awake and alert after you leave the clinic, your judgment and reflexes will be impaired for the rest of the day. That is why you must have someone drive or take you home, and it is recommended that someone stay with you for the next several hours. It is preferred that you have a clear liquid diet for the next 24 hours. You will be able to return to normal activities the next day, unless your doctor gives you other instructions.
5. What if the ERCP shows something?
If your doctor sees any area that needs further evaluation, he/she will pass an instrument through the endoscope to take a biopsy, or brushing (a small sample of the lining). This tissue will be sent to the lab to be analyzed. Taking a small biopsy will not cause you pain or discomfort. You will be notified of the lab results in about 10 days.
If a stent (small plastic tube) is placed, you will be instructed when to have this checked or removed. If a stone is removed from the bile or pancreatic duct following an internal incision, overnight hospitalization is often recommended.
6. Will I talk with the physician after the procedure?
Not necessarily. Your physician will write his/her findings and special instructions on the post-procedure instruction sheet, and a nurse will go over all the findings and instructions with you. You will be provided with the phone numbers to call should you have additional questions.
7. What are the possible complications of ERCP?
ERCP is a generally safe procedure. The most common complication is inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) which can occur in 5 percent of patients and may be associated with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and a need for hospitalization. One possible complication is a perforation, or tear, through the bowel wall that could require surgery or stent placement. Bleeding might occur at the site of biopsy or internal incision but it's usually minor. Bleeding can stop on its own or be controlled through the endoscope; it rarely requires follow-up treatment. Some patients might have a reaction to sedative or complication from heart or lung disease.
Additional education links:
- American Gastroenterological Association
- National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC)